Tuesday, March 13, 2012

TOEFL Reading – Diagnostic Test Astronomy passage

Full Length TOEFL Reading Test Full Length TOEFL Reading Test This full length diagnostic TOEFL Reading Test can reveal one’s true standing in the real time TOEFL iBT. Those who want an interpretation of their performance in the given test can approach the author at his email: newnaren@gmail.com This is a timed test. There are 13 questions and they have to be answered in 20 minutes. This passage is adapted from non-copy right material from The Future of Astronomy by Professor Edward c. Pickering Astronomy It is claimed by astronomers that their science is not only the oldest, but also the most highly developed of the sciences. Indeed it should be so, since no other science has ever received such support from royalty, from the state and from the private individual. One might expect that the practical results of a science like physics would appeal to the man who has made a vast fortune through some of its applications. The telephone, the electric transmission of power, wireless telegraphy and the submarine cable are instances of immense financial returns derived from the most abstruse principles of physics. Yet there are scarcely any physical laboratories devoted to research, or endowed with independent funds for this object except those supported by the government. The endowment of astronomical observatories devoted to research, and not including that given for teaching, is estimated to amount to several million dollars annually. Several of the larger Observatories have an annual income of fifty thousand dollars. The practical value of astronomy in the past is easily established. Without it, international commerce on a large scale would have been impossible. Without the aid of astronomy, accurate boundaries of large tracts of land could not have been defined and standard time would have been impossible. The work of the early astronomers was eminently practical, and appealed at once to every one.. We can compute the positions of the stars for years, almost for centuries, with all the accuracy needed for navigation, for determining time or for approximate boundaries of countries. Three great advances have been made in astronomy. First, the invention of the telescope, with which we commonly associate the name of Galileo, from the wonderful results he obtained with it. The second great advance in astronomy originated in America, and was in an entirely different direction, the application of photography to the study of the stars. The first photographic image of a star was obtained in 1850, by George P. Bond, with the assistance of Mr. J.A. Whipple, at the Harvard College Observatory. Since then Photography has superseded visual observations, in many departments of astronomy, and is now carrying them far beyond the limits that would have been deemed possible a few years ago. The third great advance in astronomy is in photographing the spectra of the stars. The first photograph showing the lines in a stellar spectrum was obtained by Dr. Henry Draper, of New York, in 1872. Sir William Huggins in 1863 had obtained an image of the spectrum of Sirius, on a photographic plate, but no lines were visible in it. In 1876 he again took up the subject, and, by an early publication, preceded Dr. Draper. When we consider the attention the photography of stellar spectra is receiving at the present time, in nearly all the great observatories in the world, it may well be regarded as the third great advance in astronomy. What will be the fourth advance, and how will it be brought about? First, by educating astronomers. There are many observatories where excellent instruction in astronomy is given, either to the general student or to one who wishes to make it his profession. At almost any active observatory a student would be received as a volunteer assistant. Unfortunately, few young men can afford to accept an unpaid position, and the establishment of a number of fellowships each offering a small salary sufficient to support the student would enable him to acquire the necessary knowledge to fill a permanent position. 1. According to the author, Astronomy in the past has achieved significantly a) in the development of telescopes b) in the fields of wireless telegraphy c) in the field of transmission of electrical power d) in the arenas of cable transmission 2. According to the passage, which of the following choices is not an area of astronomical achievement a) Use of photography b) accurate navigation c) Invention of telescope d) invention of telephone 3. The word advances in paragraph 3 is closest to meaning a) loans b) Progress c ) marches ahead d) suggestive gestures 4. The word stellar in the third paragraph is closes to meaning in a) relating to Stella b) relating star c) spectacular d) twinkling 5. Why does the author mention Physics in the first paragraph? a. to illustrate the difference between two basic sciences b. to say Astronomy and Physics arte equally popular sciences c. to say that Astronomy has no day to day applications d. to maintain that both sciences under discussion deal with stars 6. The author uses the second paragraph mainly in order to a) prove that astronomical achievements in the past have been of immense use b) to cite the three advances made in the past in Astronomy c) to admit that astronomical findings did not have popular appeal d) to claim that time could be determined without the use of astronomy 7. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage? Physics is an inferior science. Astronomy does not contribute to practical applications There is more financial gain in the pursuit of astronomy than in that of any other field The astronomers feel that no other science can be as old or developed as their own 8. The bolded phrase this object,in paragraph one refers to Physical laboratories Research Endowment Astronomy 9. The bolded phrase it in paragraph three refers to Astronomy Advance Invention Telescope 10. Which of the following sentences best expresses the essential information in the sentence below? (In correct answer choices omit important information or change the meaning of the original sentence in an important way.) The work of the early astronomers was eminently practical, and appealed at once to every one Early astronomers were eminent scientists who were appreciated a lot The early jobs done by the contemporary astronomers are appreciated by everybody Astronomers in the early days did a very useful job that was instantly and universally acclaimed. Early astronomers appealed to every one by asking for funds 11. Look at the four squares ■ that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage On the contrary, there are many research oriented bodies in the field of Astronomy which receive financial support not just from state but also from other private sources. It is claimed by astronomers that their science is not only the oldest, but that it is the most highly developed of the sciences. Indeed it should be so, since no other science has ever received such support from royalty, from the state and from the private individual. ■ One might expect that the practical results of a science like physics would appeal to the man who has made a vast fortune through some of its applications. ■ The telephone, the electric transmission of power, wireless telegraphy and the submarine cable are instances of immense financial returns derived from the most abstruse principles of physics. Yet there are scarcely any physical laboratories devoted to research, or endowed with independent funds for this object, except those supported by the government. ■ The endowment of astronomical observatories devoted to research, and not including that given for teaching, is estimated to amount to several million dollars annually. Several of the larger observatories have an annual income of fifty thousand dollars. ■ Indeed it should be so, since no other science has ever received such support from royalty, from the state and from the private individual. ■ On the contrary, there are many research oriented bodies in the field of Astronomy which receive financial support not just from state but also from other private sources One might expect that the practical results of a science like physics would appeal to the man who has made a vast fortune through some of its applications. ■ On the contrary, there are many research oriented bodies in the field of Astronomy which receive financial support not just from state but also from other private sources Yet there are scarcely any physical laboratories devoted to research, or endowed with independent funds for this object, except those supported by the government. ■ On the contrary, there are many research oriented bodies in the field of Astronomy which receive financial support not just from state but also from other private sources Several of the larger observatories have an annual income of fifty thousand dollars. ■ On the contrary, there are many research oriented bodies in the field of Astronomy which receive financial support not just from state but also from other private sources 12. DIRECTIONS: Below is an introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage. Complete the summary by selecting three of the answer choices that express the most important ideas of the passage and writing your choices inside the box. Some of the answer choices are incorrect because they express ideas that are not given in the passage or because they express only details from the passage. That Astronomy, an age old science had made significant advances can be illustrated amply by concrete examples. 1. Invention of telescope 2. Dr Henry Draper preceded Dr Williams Huggins in producing a stellar spectrum with visible lines, though the latter was the first who got a star’s image without lines 3.Use of photography in the capture of the star spectrum 4.Physics attracts more attention than astronomy 5. Use of photography Items 1, 2 and 3 Items 1, 2 and 5 Items 1, 3 and 5 Items 2, 3 and 4 13. DIRECTIONS: Match the phrases in the answer choices on the left side of the chart to the correct category or concept on the right side of the chart by writing the letter of the choice in the blank next to the bullet point. For questions with five answers, one choice will not be used. For questions with seven answers, two choices will not be used. On an actual exam, five-answer questions are worth three points 1. Receives financial approval fore a variety of bodies 2. Uses photography to a great extent 3. There are immense financial returns in 4. More laboratories devoted to research 5. More popularly visible results obtained 6 Helpful in navigation, determination of time and marking of boundaries Choice 1 Astronomy: 1 Receives financial approval from a variety of bodies 2 Uses Photography to a large extent 5. More popularly visible results obtained Physics 3There are immense financial returns in 4.More laboratories devoted to research Choice 2 Astronomy 1.Receives financial approval from a variety of bodies 4. More laboratories devoted to research 6. Helpful in navigation, determination of time and marking of boundaries Physics 3. There are immense financial returns in 5. More popularly visible results obtained Choice 3 Astronomy 3.There are immense financial returns in 4. More laboratories devoted to research 6.Helpful in navigation, determination of time and marking of boundaries Physics 1. Receives financial approval from a variety of bodies 5. More popularly visible results obtained Choice 4 Astronomy 2.Uses photography to a great extent 3. There are immense financial returns in 6. Helpful in navigation, determination of time and marking of boundaries Physics 1. Receives financial approval from a variety of bodies 3 There are immense financial returns in

3 Comments:

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At February 19, 2013 at 12:06 PM , Blogger nancy john said...

Good post about TOEFL it is very useful for students

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